Social and Political Structure of the Tokugawa Period

I. Tokugawa period social stratification.

A. Theoretically four classes:

1. shi -- warriors (samurai)

2. no -- farmers

3. ko -- artisans

4. sho -- merchants

B. Reality of stratification: two classes (samurai and everyone else)

C. Self-governing groups

1. priests -- Shinto and some Buddhist denominations

2. hinin -- "non-humans"

3. eta -- hereditary pariah

4. farming villages

II. Highest levels of the social structure

A. Emperor and imperial family

B. kuge -- imperial court aristocracy

C. sei-i-tai-shogun (Barbarian Subduing Generalissimo)

III. Daimyo (the feudal lords)-- categorized on basis of relation to shogun

A. Shimpan daimyo (blood relatives of the Tokugawa shogun)

1. sanke (The Three Houses)

2. sankyo (The Three Lords)

3. kamon (other related families)

B. Fudai daimyo (hereditary vassals of the shogun)

1. roju (senior council)

2. wakadoshiyori (junior council)

3. The Ii family of the Hikone domain

C. Tozama daimyo ("outside" lords)

1. Shimazu family of the Satsuma domain

2. Mori family of the Choshu domain

IV. Techniques of shogunal control over the daimyo

A. sakoku (closed country)

B. sankin-kotai (alternate attendance)

C. Extra-ordinary levies

D. Shifting domains

E. Laws of the Military Houses