Biology 34:  Organismal Physiology

Plant Physiology

Section I:  Thermodynamics and Plant Cells

 A. Plant Cells


1.  Membranes

Membranes are composed of a phospholipid bilayer with suspended proteins.

2.  Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes are those organisms that do not have a nucleous.  The term prokaryotic can be broken down into "pro"  which means "before", and "karyon" which means kernal or nucleus.  Not only do prokaryotes not have a nucleus, but they also do not have membrane bound organelles within the cytoplasm.  However, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes have ribosomes.  Eukaryotes, on the other hand, do have membrane bound organells.

3.  Cell Walls

Cell walls are one of the defining components of the plant cell. The cell wall supports the plant cell with the help of the vacuole.   Animals do not have cell walls - How are animal cells supported?

4. Eukaryote Protoplasts

The eukaryote protoplast can be divided into three components:  the cytoplasm, the nucleous, and the vacuole.

5.  Cytoplasms and Cytoplasmic Components

a.  Plasma Membrane or Plasmalemma of euaryoteic and prokaryotic cells are very similar.  Both regulate the flow of siddolved substnces in and out of the cell.
b.  Endomembrane System plays a major rote in the production of cytopasmic organelle, the deposition of materials, and the biosytnesis and atransport of material destined to be secreated out of the cell.  The following are the components of the endomembrane system.
Endoplasmic reticulum:
Nuclear envelop:
Vacuolar membrane or tonoplast:
Goligi apparatus:
Oleosomes and prtoein bodies:  

c.  Cytoskeleton

d.  Ribosomes
e.  Mitochondria
f.  Plastids

6.  Vacuole:

Role in Turgidity and Shape

Role in Staroage and Accumulation
Role as Lysosomes
Role in Homeostasis
Role in Metabolism
Origin of Vacuoles

7.  Nucleus

8.  Fagella and Cillia

B. Water: Thermodynamics, Diffusion, and Water Potential

C. Osmosis

D. Compromise between Photosytnthesis and Transpiration

E. Ascent of Sap

F. Mineral Nutrition

G. Transport in the Phloem

Section II:  Biochemistry and Plants

Section III:  Plant Development

Section IV:  Plant Physiology and the Environment

Bgy 34: Organismal Physiology Home Page