Biology 34 - Animal and Plant Physiology

Fall 1999

I. Instructors: Drs. Dennis Haney and Laura Thompson

II. Office: 236 Plyler (Haney); 224 Plyler (Thompson)

III. Office Hours: 11:00 - 12:00 (Haney - phone 294-2050); 8:00 – 9:00 A.M. and 11:00-12:00 A.M. (Thompson - phone 294-2085); also by appointment (both).

IV. Text: Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment, Schmidt-Nielsen, 1997

Introduction to Plant Physiology, 2nd ed. William G. Hopkins, 1999

V. Schedule: Lecture, 10 AM, 238 Plyler; Laboratory, Tuesday, 2-5 PM , 234 Plyler

VI. Tentative Lecture, Laboratory, and Readings Schedule


Class Topics



Sept. 14-17

Water relations (plant - 3)

Ch 1, 2, (WH)

Review Plant Anatomy (plant - 1)


Convocation, September 15 - No Class

Ch 3 (WH)


Sept. 20-24

Light, Pigments, and Leaves (plant - 1)

Ch 7, 8 (WH)

C3 & C4 Photosynthesis (plant)


Carbon assimilation & productivity

(continued - plant - 3)

Ch 9,10 (WH)


Respiration (animal -1)

Ch 1 (SN)


Sept. 27- Oct. 1

Respiration (continued - animal - 4)

Ch 1 (SN)

Respiration (animal)


Exam 1 - Friday, October 1


Oct. 4-8

Photoassimilate distribution & usage (plant-2)

Ch 11, 12 (WH)

Sun vs. Shade Plants (plant)


Carbon Assimilation & Productivity (plant-1)

Ch 13 (WH)


Oxygen transport (animal - 2)

Ch 2 (SN)


Oct. 11-15

Circulation (animal - 3)

Ch 3 (SN)

Dive response (animal)


Patterns of plant development (plant -2)

Ch 15 (WH)


Oct. 18-22

Feeding & digestion (animal - 2)

Ch 4 (SN)

Mineral nutrition (plant)


Mineral Nutrition (plant - 1)

Ch 4, 5, 6 (WH)


Plant growth hormones (plant - 2)

Ch 16, 17 (WH)


Oct. 25-29

Exam 2 - Monday October 25


Temperature tolerance (animal)


Plant growth hormones (continued - plant - 1)

Ch 16, 17 (WH)


Comparative endocrinology (animal - 2)

Ch 12 (SN)


Fall Weekend, October 29 - No Class


Nov. 2-5

Fall Weekend, November 2 - No Class


Plant hormones (plant)


Photomorphogenesis (plant - 2)

Ch 18 (WH)


Energetics (animal - 2)

Ch 5 (SN)


Nov. 8-12

Ionic & osmotic regulation (animal - 2)

Ch 8 (SN)

Osmoregulation (animal)


Excretion (animal - 2)

Ch 9 (SN)


Exam 3 - Friday November 12


Nov. 15-19

Photoperiodism (plant - 2)

Ch 20 (WH)

Phytochrome (plant)


Temp. & Plant Development (plant-1)

Ch 21 (WH)


Temp. & temperature regulation (animal - 2)

Ch 6 (SN)


Nov. 22-26

Thanksgiving Break (no class)


No laboratory

Nov. 29-Dec. 3

Temperature & temperature regulation (continued - animal - 3)

Ch 7 (SN)

Temperature regulation and allometry (animal)


Stress physiology (plant - 2)

Ch 22 (WH)


Dec. 6-8

Stress physiology (continued - plant - 2)


Dec. 10

(9-11:30 AM)

Exam 4 Friday, December 10


VII. Grading



Exam 1 - October 4 - 19%

Animal Laboratory Report (1) - 5%

Exam 2 - October 25 - 19%

Plant Laboratory Report (1) - 5%

Exam 3 - November 12 - 19%

Lab Assignments (4 animal, 2 plant) - 10%

Exam 4 - December 10 - 19%

Paper Review (1 animal, 1 plant) - 4%

4 Lecture Exams = 76% Total Grade

Laboratory Assignments = 24% Total Grade

Anyone with a score of 60% or more is guaranteed at least a grade of ‘D-’, 70% or greater a grade of ‘C-’, 80% or greater at least a grade of ‘B-’, and 90% or greater an ‘A-’. However, since final grades are based on the total number of points scored on all exams and laboratory exercises, they cannot be computed precisely until the end of the course (i.e., the grading scale may be lowered, but this will NOT be determined until the end of the course). You will of course be able to monitor your progress based on scores throughout the semester. Do not wait until the third or fourth exam to discover you are not doing as well as you expected. Graduating seniors should be especially aware of this. There is NO extra credit in this course.

VIII. Lectures and Reading Assignments

Attendance at all lectures, while not required, is highly recommended. Experience has shown that attendance in lecture correlates with grades earned in the course. Regardless of your attendance, however, you are responsible for all material, assignments, and announcements made in lecture. Ignorance of an announcement made in class is not an acceptable excuse for failure to meet a course requirement. Attendance is required at all labs. Do not schedule events, meetings, or any other activities from 2:00 - 5:00 PM on Tuesday. No excuse will be accepted for missing lab or leaving lab early.

You are also expected to start and maintain an e-mail address on the Furman University Lotus Notes system. You will be expected to check your e-mail at least once each week during the course. You are responsible for all material, assignments, and announcements sent to you by e-mail. Ignorance of an announcement sent to you by e-mail is not an acceptable excuse for failure to meet a course requirement.

Both lectures and reading assignments are fundamental parts of this course. While the lectures and reading assignments will overlap to some extent, they will not be identical. Much of the information covered in lecture will not be in the readings. Likewise, very important information may be presented only in the assigned readings. Read the material before it is covered in lecture so you can clarify any problems with the reading assignment at that time. Note that the amount of assigned reading varies from week to week throughout the course. You are responsible on the examinations for all material covered in lecture, in lab, and in the assigned readings.

Students with disabilities who need academic accommodations should contact Dr. Sarah Fletcher, Coordinator of Disability Services, (2998), in Plyler Hall 1 (basement). After meeting with her, contact Dr. Thompson and Dr Haney during our office hours. Don't procrastinate: do this EARLY in the term.

IX. Lecture Exams

Lecture exams will be given during the lecture period on the dates noted above. Exams will consist of multiple choice, matching, short essays, and quantitative problems.

You are expected to take the exams when scheduled. The ONLY acceptable excuse for missing an exam is illness or family emergency that must be documented in detail by a doctor. The availability and scheduling of make-up exams (during the term) is solely at the discretion of the instructors. Any changes in the scheduling of a final examination must have the prior approval of the Associate Academic Dean.

Success in this course is not based on memorizing the lecture material. Many questions will require you to make novel use of the material that you have learned. Thus, exam questions may ask you to relate one concept to another, to explain why something happens in a given situation, and to predict what would happen in a given situation. Lecture and laboratory time will be spent to help you learn to do this. Many questions will also be quantitative. Handout problems will be assigned and class time devoted to giving you practice in this area as well.

X. Laboratories

The laboratory sessions in this course are designed to complement and supplement the lecture material. The experiments will illustrate the type of biological questions that can be addressed experimentally and will provide you with experience in using the techniques of animal and plant physiology. The details of the labs will be provided in class and/or in a laboratory manual available on the WWW at the following URL’s:

Each student will also be expected to maintain a laboratory notebook (this does not have to be any specific type) detailing their work in the laboratory.

1) Animal Physiology Section

The notebook will be used to complete the four laboratory assignments and the laboratory report that will be assigned this semester. Lab assignments will be announced in class; the lab report is due by 4:00 PM on the date indicated below. There is a 10% penalty for each day a lab report or assignment is late. See the Lab Manual for additional material on the writing and preparation of laboratory reports. The Lab assignments will be team efforts (each lab group will write and turn in a single paper). However, each student will turn in their own Lab Report and written paper review (these are not team efforts). See below for more information.

2) Plant Physiology Section

You will need to keep a laboratory notebook to complete the laboratory assignments and the laboratory report that are assigned this semester. Lab assignments will be announced in class; the lab report is due by 4:00 PM on the dates indicated below. There is a 10% penalty for each day a lab report or assignment is late. See the laboratory handouts for additional material on the writing and preparation of laboratory reports. The Lab assignments will be team efforts (each lab group will write and turn in a single paper). Each student must sign the submitted laboratory assignment. Lab Report and the written paper review are not team efforts, each student will turn in their own. See below for more information.

Lab Reports

Due Date

1. Photosynthesis (plant labs 1 and 2)

Friday, October 15

2. Animal Respiration

Wednesday, November 5

Paper Reviews - Due: Friday, November 19, 1999

The purpose of this assignment is to familiarize you with scientific literature in the area of comparative animal physiology biology. Using the knowledge you have gained in the classroom and laboratory, you will obtain two scientific papers that must have been published after 1994. One paper must deal with any aspect of animal physiology (not Human Physiology, and preferably covering an area we have or will discuss) and one paper must deal with any aspect of plant physiology. Read the papers, and write two separate review papers about what you have read. The articles you select should be actual research papers - they should NOT be "review articles". You must select your papers from a reputable, peer-reviewed scientific journal. This does not include popular science magazines like Scientific American or Discover magazine. Since animal physiology and plant physiology are such broad disciplines, you can select articles from a number of different journals. Some places you might look include Science, Nature, Physiological Zoology, American Zoologist, Plant Physiology, American Journal of Botany, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Journal of Experimental Biology, and many others (all available right here in Furman's Science library).

In your paper you will describe what the article is about. Although it is not necessary to describe the experiments performed in any detail (like you might in the materials and methods section of a paper), you should summarize relevant procedures. In addition, you must describe the relevance of these article. Does it conflict with information in the textbook? Do you think this paper has any important significance in animal physiology in general? Did the experimental approach to the problem make sense? Why or why not? How does this paper relate to topics we have discussed in class?

The format of the paper should be double-spaced and typed. Each paper review should be about 2 pages long. Along with your paper you must include a photocopy of the scientific paper you selected for review. You will be graded on your ability to concisely communicate scientific information and your ability to interpret sometimes cryptic scientific literature. Grammar and neatness will also be considered in determining your grade. Use appropriate scientific writing style, which in very general terms means no use of "I", or "we" and no use of contractions or slang. See the section on Scientific Writing in the laboratory manual for more information. Additionally, do not use direct quotes from the paper. It should be written entirely in your own words.

XI. Academic Dishonesty

If you have not done so yet, please read the section on Academic Dishonesty in the Helmsman (page 42 for 1998-99). When taking this course, I will assume that when you put your name on an exam, quiz, lab paper, term paper, etc. that this is your bond to say that you have done your own work.

"Academic dishonesty in any form is a fundamental offense against the integrity of the entire academic community and is always a threat to the standards of the college and to the standing of every student. In taking tests and examinations, doing homework, laboratory work, and writing papers, students are expected to perform with honor. One of the most common forms of academic dishonesty is plagiarism. Plagiarism is the use of another’s words and ideas as if they were one’s own...." (Helmsman 1998-1999, page 42)

XII. Tips on Taking Tests in This Course

1. Since time is a factor, it is a good idea to scan the entire test and then answer the easier questions first. Also, reading all the questions first rather than reading and answering them in strict sequential order may jog your memory or give you an idea on answering the harder questions. Use a pencil for the test, since you may need to erase an answer when reviewing it later in the test period.

2. Be sure to give an answer for all questions. Leaving a question blank eliminates the possibility of partial credit.

3. For each "short essay type" question we expect your writing to be concise, your sentences to be understandable, your logic to be clear, and your handwriting to be readable. Think before you write.

4. When explaining or predicting phenomena in these short essay questions, avoid anthropomorphism’s. For example, instead of saying that certain cells respond in some way because the cells or the organisms need to do something, seek and explain the physical mechanisms mediating the cellular response. The words need and want should rarely, if ever, appear in your answers.

5. When you are asked to give examples of a general phenomenon or to site characteristics of something, give what you believe to be the most important examples or characteristics. Always strive to give your best answer, not just a passably adequate one.

6. If you are asked to be specific in your answer, be as specific as you can without being wrong. An answer which is too specific (an unlikely event) will receive much more partial credit than one which is too vague.

7. For multiple choice questions, choose the best answer. Some other choices may be correct under unusual circumstances or be remotely conceivable. Before you decide for one answer, make sure you know why you are deciding against all the others.

8. For matching questions, make the best combination of matches. Some choices may be, by themselves, validly matched with more than one selection. However, there will be only one best combination of matches when all the possible combinations are considered.

9. There will be no true-false questions, no fill-in-the-blank questions, nor any long essay questions.

10. If a question calls for calculations and you are asked to show your work, clearly outline the rationale for your calculations in addition to any pertinent equations you use. Simply giving the final answer or else turning the answer area into an unorganized "scratch sheet" of arithmetic is not sufficient. Also, be sure to clearly indicate what your final answer is and include appropriate units in your answer.

11. We make a deliberate attempt to place on each exam questions with a wide range of difficulty. Some questions we expect almost all students to answer correctly, while a few questions we expect few, if any, students to answer for complete credit. There is a reason for this. To some degree, your final grade depends on how you perform relative to your classmates. If more than one student answers all the questions correctly on an exam, there is no way to differentiate between them. The same argument applies if more than one student answers none of the questions correctly. Thus, any student who scores 0% or 100% on an exam is "off the scale" and cannot be adequately evaluated in relation to others.