Chaucer's Rhymes

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The main phonological difference between Chaucer's English (the London dialect of the late 14th century) and Present-Day English is the pronunciation of vowels; Chaucer wrote before the Great Vowel Shift.  For this reason, many of the rhyming words in his poetry no longer rhyme today. 

General Prologue, Canterbury Tales, lines 1-10 
Whan that aprill with his shoures soote 

The droghte of march hath perced to the roote, 

roote is PDE "root"; the vowel has gone through the GVS, moving from o to u. The word soote doesn't survive into PDE.
And bathed every veyne in swich licour 

Of which vertu engendred is the flour; 

the u in licour and flour (PDE "liquor" and "flower") take different paths. In licour, the vowel shortens and becomes a schwa in PDE, while the vowel in flour, as expected, becomes a diphthong.
Whan zephirus eek with his sweete breeth 

Inspired hath in every holt and heeth

breeth and heeth (PDE "breath" and "heath") are an interesting pair because they rhymed for Chaucer but don't rhyme for PDE speakers. The vowel in breeth (the long e) must have shortened before the GVS (like PDE "threat" and "head"), while the vowel in heeth went through the normal GVS raising to e and then to i.
Tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne 

Hath in the ram his halve cours yronne, 

sonne and yronne are PDE "sun" and "run." The pronunction has changed, but not due to the GVS;  the short vowels in sonne and yronne unrounded and became PDE schwas.
And smale foweles maken melodye, 

That slepen al the nyght with open ye 

The same thing happens for melodye and ye as happened for breeth and heeth. The vowel at the end of melodye is unstressed and becomes short, so it maintains the sound i in PDE; the vowel at the end of ye (PDE "eye") stays long and thus goes through the GVS, becoming aI.

Text of Chaucer's General Prologue from Oxford Text Archive
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For an online audio introduction to Chaucer's English, see the Language and Linguistics section of the Geoffrey Chaucer Website.